Georgia Progressive Exchange

Glossary

Glossary



"'When I use a word,' Humpty Dumpty said in rather a scornful tone, 'it means just what I choose it to mean — neither more nor less.'
"'The question is,' said Alice, 'whether you can make words mean so many different things.'
"'The question is,' said Humpty Dumpty, 'which is to be master — that’s all.'"

― Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking Glass

 

ab•stract adj. 1. Considered apart from concrete existence: an abstract concept. 2. Not applied or practical; theoretical. 3. Difficult to understand; abstruse: abstract philosophical problems. 4. Denoting something that is immaterial, conceptual, or nonspecific, as an idea or quality: abstract words like truth and justice.... (abstract - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

au•thor•i•tar•i•an adj. 1. Characterized by or favoring absolute obedience to authority, as against individual freedom: an authoritarian regime. 2. Tending to tell other people what to do in a peremptory or arrogant manner. See Synonyms at dictatorial. (authoritarian - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

con•sen•sus n. 1. An opinion or position reached by a group as a whole: "Among political women...there is a clear consensus about the problems women candidates have traditionally faced" (Wendy Kaminer) 2. General agreement or accord: government by consensus. (consensus - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

con•ser•va•tive adj. 1. Favoring traditional views and values; tending to oppose change.... 3. Moderate; cautious: a conservative estimate. 4a. Of or relating to the political philosophy of conservatism. b. Belonging to a conservative party, group, or movement.... ■ n. 1. One favoring traditional views and values. 2. A supporter of political conservatism.... (conservative - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

critical race theory. See the article here.

de•moc•ra•cy n., pl. -cies 1. Government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representatives. 2. A political or social unit that has such a government. 3. The common people, considered as the primary source of political power. 4. Majority rule. 5. The principles of social equality and respect for the individual within a community. (democracy - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)
     (Description of "democracy" from Wikipedia here).

dis•in•for•ma•tion n. 1. Deliberately misleading information announced publicly or leaked by a government or especially by an intelligence agency in order to influence public opinion or the government in another nation: "He would be the unconscious channel for a piece of disinformation aimed at another country's intelligence service." (Ken Follett) 2. Dissemination of such misleading information. (disinformation - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

em•pa•thy n. 1. The ability to identify with or understand another's situation or feelings: Empathy is a distinctly human capability. See Synonyms at Pity. 2. The attribution of one's own feelings to an object: They have empathy to the evacuees who were displaced by the flood. (empathy - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

fas•cism n. 1. Often Fascism a. A system of government marked by centralization of authority under a dictator, a capitalist economy subject to stringent governmental controls, violent suppression of the opposition, and typically a policy of belligerent nationalism and racism.... (fascism - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

     (See a book excerpt on the characteristics of fascism here.)
     (See a review of the book How Fascism Works: The Politics of Us and Them by Jason Stanley.
     (See the Wikipedia entry on "fascism.")

fas•cist n. 1. often Fascist An advocate or adherent of fascism. 2. A reactionary or dictatorial person. adj. 1. often Fascist Of, advocating, or practicing fascism.... (fascist - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

free•dom n. 1a. The condition of not being in prison or captivity: gave the prisoners their freedom. b. The condition of being free of restraints, especially the ability to act without control or interference by another or by circumstance: In retirement they finally got the freedom to travel. 2a. The condition of not being controlled by another nation or political power; political independence. b. The condition of not being subject to a despotic or oppressive power; civil liberty. c. The condition of not being constrained or restricted in a specific aspect of life by a government or other power: freedom of assembly. d. The condition of not being a slave. 3a. The condition of not being affected or restricted by a given circumstance or condition: freedom from want. b. The condition of not being bound by established conventions or rules: The new style of painting gave artists new freedoms. 4. The capacity to act by choice rather than by determination, as from fate or a deity; free will: We have the freedom to do as we please all afternoon. 5. The right to unrestricted use; full access: was given the freedom of their research facilities. 6. Ease or facility of movement: loose sports clothing, giving the wearer freedom.... (freedom - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011) (See also "liberty.")
     (See the progressive value "freedom.")
     (See Lakoff on freedom.)
     NEW! (See Isaiah Berlin, "Two Concepts of Liberty.")

hi•er•ar•chy n. 1. A group of persons or things organized into successive ranks or grades with each level subordinate to the one above: a career spent moving up through the military hierarchy.... (hierarchy - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

i•de•o•logue n. An advocate of a particular ideology, especially an official exponent of that ideology. (ideologue - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

i•de•ol•o•gy n., pl. -gies A set of doctrines or beliefs that are shared by the members of a social group or that form the basis of a political, economic, or other system. (ideology - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

in•sti•tu•tion n. ...2a. A custom, practice, relationship, or behavioral pattern of importance in the life of a community or society: the institutions of marriage and the family. b. Informal One long associated with a specified place, position, or function. 3a. An established organization or foundation, especially one dedicated to education, public service, or culture.... (institution - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

is•sue n. 1a. A point or matter of discussion, debate, or dispute: What legal and moral issues shall we consider? b. A matter of public concern: debated economic issues. c. A misgiving, objection, or complaint: had issues with the plan to change the curriculum. 2. Usage Problem a. A problem or difficulty.... (issue - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

     "...An issue is ‘a difficulty or problem that has a significant influence on the way the [society] functions or on its ability to achieve a desired future, for which there is no agreed-on response....’" John M. Bryson and Robert C. Einsweiler, editors, Strategic Planning: Threats and Opportunities for Planners (1988) p. 69

lib•er•al adj. 1a. Favoring reform, open to new ideas, and tolerant of the ideas and behavior of others; not bound by traditional thinking; broad-minded.... b. Of, relating to, or characteristic of liberalism.... ■ n. 1. A person with liberal ideas or opinions.... (liberal - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

lib•er•al•ism n. 1. The state or quality of being liberal. 2a. A political theory founded on the natural goodness of humans and the automony of the individual and favoring civil and political liberties, government by law with the consent of the governed, and protection from arbitrary authority. b. often Liberalism The tenets or policies of a Liberal party. 3. An economic theory in favor of laissez-faire, the free market, and the gold standard.... (liberalism - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

NEW! lib•er•ty n., pl. -ties 1. The condition of being free from confinement, servitude, or forced labor. 2a. The condition of being free from oppressive restriction or control by a government or other power. b. A right to engage in certain actions without control or interference by a government or other power: the liberties protected by the Bill of Rights.... (liberty - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011) (See also "freedom.")

mar•ket n. ...2a. A system of exchange in which prices are determined by the interaction of multiple, competing buyers and sellers.... (market - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

met•a•phor n. 1. A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison, as in “a sea of troubles” or “All the world's a stage” (Shakespeare). 2. One thing conceived as representing another; a symbol: “Hollywood has always been an irresistible, prefabricated metaphor for the crass, the materialistic....” (metaphor - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

mis•in•form tr. v. To provide with incorrect information. —misinformant, misinformer n.misinformation n. (misinform - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

Obamacare: Affordable Care Act (ACA); also Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA)

ol•i•gar•chy n., pl. -chies 1a. Government by a few, especially by a small faction of persons or families b. Those making up such a government. 2. A state governed by a few persons. (oligarchy - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

pol•i•cy n., pl. -cies 1. A plan or course of action, as of a government, political party, or business, intended to influence and determine decisions, actions, and other matters: American foreign policy; the company’s personnel policy.... (policy - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

pol•i•tics n. 1. (used with a sing. verb) a. The art or science of government or governing, especially the governing of a political entity, such as a nation, and the administration and control of its internal and external affairs.... 2. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) a. The activities or affairs engaged in by a government, politician, or political party.... b. The methods or tactics involved in managing a state or government.... 4. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) Intrigue or maneuvering within a political unit or a group in order to gain control or power... 5. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) Political attitudes and positions.... 6. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) The often internally conflicting interrelationships among people in a society. (politics - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

pow•er n. 1a. The ability or capacity to act or do something effectively: Is it in your power to undo this injustice? b. often powers A specific capacity, faculty, or aptitude: her powers of concentration.... 3a. The ability or official capacity to exercise control, authority: How long has that party been in power? b. The military strength or economic or political influence of a nation or other group: That country projects its power throughout the region. c. A country, nation, or other political unit having great influence or control over others: the western powers.... (power - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

prin•ci•ple n. 1. A basic truth, law, or assumption: the principles of democracy. 2a. A rule or standard, especially of good behavior: a man of principle. b. The collectivity of moral or ethical standards or judgments: a decision based on principle rather than expediency. 3. A fixed or predetermined policy or mode of action. 4. A basic or essential quality or element determining intrinsic nature or characteristic behavior: the principle of self-preservation. (principle - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

pro•gres•sive adj.... 3. Open to or favoring new ideas, policies, or methods: a progressive politician; progressive business leadership....■ n. 1. A person who is open to or favors new ideas, policies, or methods, especially in politics.... (progressive - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

pro•gres•siv•ism n. 1. The principles and practices of political progressives. 2. Progressive education. (progressivism - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)
     (Description from Wikipedia). "...In the 21st century, progressives continue to favour public policy that reduces or ameliorates the harmful effects of economic inequality as well as systemic discrimination such as institutional racism; to advocate for environmentally conscious policies as well as for social safety nets and workers' rights; and to oppose the negative externalities inflicted on the environment and society by monopolies or corporate influence on the democratic process. The unifying theme is to call attention to the negative impacts of current institutions or ways of doing things and to advocate for social progress, i.e. for positive change as defined by any of several standards such as expansion of democracy, increased egalitarianism in the form of economic and social equality as well as improved well being of a population. Proponents of social democracy have identified themselves as promoting the progressive cause.[26]"

prop•a•gan•da n. 1. The systemic propagation of a doctrine or cause or of information reflecting the views and interests of those advocating such a doctrine or cause. 2. Material disseminated by the advocates or opponents of a doctrine or cause: wartime propaganda.... (propaganda - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

racism, systemic. See this document.

NEW! re•pub•lic n. 1a. A political order whose head of state is not a monarch and in modern times is usually a president. b. A nation that has such a political order. 2a. A political order in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who are entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them. b. A nation that has such a political order.... (republic - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

systemic racism. See racism, systemic above.

val•ue n. ...4. often values A principle or standard, as of behavior, that is considered important or desirable: "The speech was a summons back to the patrician values of restraint and responsibility" (Jonathan Alter). (value - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition, 2011)

     See http://valuesmessage.org/info/values_def.html and the further links for a description of the characteristics of values. A summary is repeated here:
"1. All values are learned values....
"2. Values are relatively enduring....
"3. Values are not necessarily consciously known by either the individual or the society....
"4. Values tend toward consistency, i.e., like values attract like values....
"5. Values enshrine and impart a society’s concepts of the morally desirable....
"6. Values are inundated with emotional feelings and are held with strong conviction....
"7. Values establish a disposition to act...."

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Date Revised

September 14, 2021